Delhi: India's Historical City.

New Delhi, the modern capital of India, is situated immediately south of the city of Deli, now called Old Delhi. Both cities have so much growth since achieving independence that they have melded into a greater Delhi. Old Delhi’s many monuments are excellent examples of Indo-Muslim architecture, Pashtun style architecture, which features find domes and tiles, and Mughal styles, which use elaborate surfaces and marble, as evidenced in the principal mosque. The crumbling ruins of 4000-years old forts can be seen in many places unattended and unrespected.

Old Delhi on its current site was built by Shah Jahan in 1638, who ruled from his famous peacock throne of emeralds, diamonds and rubies. Delhi was then the capital of succession of empires, including the Mui’izzi Dynasty in the thirteenth century, the Mughal Empire, under Babur, in the sixteenth century, and the Persia Empire in the eighteenth century. Persians took the empire’s prized 109 carat Koh-e-noor diamond, which was later presented to Queen Victoria by the East India Company in 1850. Of the many emperors who have ruled from Delhi, Seven have rebuilt the city on nearby sites. Historians report that Delhi’s smaller settlements number 15. New Delhi, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, was built as the capital of British India in 1912.

Once confined to the west bank of the Yamuna River, a tributary of the Ganges, Delhi has grown to 572.9 square miles (1484 square kilometers) and encompasses the city of New Delhi, the sites of former Delhi’s and the eastern bank of the river. The population had exploded to 30.29 million by 2020, up from 193,000 in 1980. The boom has led to the overcrowding and proven problems that are endemic in India’s major cities.

Most of the people consider New Delhi as the most beautifully designed and grandly conceived capital in the World, and they are correct. There are some eye-catching and beautiful sites, in Delhi, attracting the tourists.

Qutub Minar is one of the best sites for tourists. Qutab-ud-din Aibak was the first one who commenced the construction of the Qutb Minar in 1200 AD, but could only finish the basement. His successor, IItutmush, added three more storeys, and in 1368, Firoz Shah Tughlak constructed its fifth and the last storey. The Qutub Minar, the highest tower in India, is raising up to 73 meter in the air.

Qutub Minar.
The Iron Pillar is a structure 7.2 meters high with 16 inches diameter, was constructed by King Chandra, and now stands in the Qutub complex in Delhi. The pillar weighs more than 3000 kg, an interesting fact about it is that it is highly resistant to corrosion. People think it don’t corrode because it has high phosphorous content. Although it is one of the best sites for tourists.

Iron Pillar.
Agrasen Ki Baoli is a historical monument, it is 60 meter long and 15 meter wide step wall situated near Connaught Place, in New Delhi. Although there are no known historical records to prove who actually built the Agrasen Ki Baoli, it is belived that it was built by the Indian Legendary King Agrasen.

Agrasen Ki Baoli.
Delhi has seen many up’s and down’s throughout its life. Delhi has been ruled out by many emperors since the 8th century, the first one to come here was Muhammad bin Qasim, the son of yousuf bin qasim, after his time hundreds of emperors, belonging to different religions, ruled this historical city. The line of rulers came to an end by the time of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor.


3 Cool Tech Gadgets You Should Know About | Gotek | Insta Ring | Yahey Fingerprint Lock

Our world is moving faster and it is changing drastically. The Scientists have brought a lot of improvements in every field, as far as we talk about improvements, in most of the countries the advance technological achievements are at the top. Many companies give us their very best in the form of making different stuff that suits our modern world.
The following are 3 cool gadgets everyone should use once.


If you are fond of taking pictures and feeling a bit uncomfortable with your mobile device then the Insta Ring, a wearable camera, is surely for you. The Insta Ring can shoot 4k videos at 12-megapixel or 30fps, HDR photos, which is quite a feat from a camera that wraps around your finger. The shockproof features allow you to use it during work, as it cannot be spoiled by striking against something hard. The wearable camera has an internal storage of 32-Gigabytes for storing pictures and videos that you had shot with the camera. Also, the water-resistant ability of the camera appreciate you to shoot those beautiful moments underwater.


YAHEY Fingerprint Lock is a totally biometric-enabled device and can be unlocked only with your fingerprint. It takes only 1 second to be unlocked. The zinc alloy metal external body and toughened steel wire ensure protection from smashing or cutting. A smart feature in the lock is that you can set up to ten fingerprints in it for hassle-free identification, it can be offered to family members or friends for use once the lock had recognized and saved their fingerprints. The Water-resistant and anti-theft features of the lock enable you to believe it as a loyal security assistant at Gym, home, office or somewhere else. It weighs only 60 grams and is small as lipstick in size. Only 2 hours of charging lasts up to two years, also its lower power consumption saves energy.


Gotek is a wireless foldable keyboard that allows you to write easily. The device is designed to be used with your mobile devices including your iPad, iPhone, Android, and Windows-based tablets, and all the devices can be connected via a single touch. It has a built-in stand that folds out to support smartphones and tablets up to 10 inches screen sizes. It is made from an aircraft-grade aluminum alloy that should keep it durableWeighing less than half a pound, the keyboard is just 0.23 inches thick when folded. Moreover, the wireless keyboard provides up to 60 hours of writing time and up to 3 days standby time on a single charge. The compact design comes with built-in speakers, The built-in Bluetooth speaker can be used together or separately from the keyboard. It also includes a built-in microphone that adds versatility including using it for phone calls.


The Great Pacific Garbage Patch

Twice the size of Texas, a mass of non-biodegradable plastic has gathered in the waters of the northern Pacific Ocean. Brought together by ocean currents, this vast body of waste originates from countries all around the world and poses a major long-term threat to the ecosystem. Yet no nation-state or major international body has formulated a comprehensive plan for dealing with it.

The responsibility of no single nation, the great pacific garbage patch is a truly dirty secret that few outside the community of environmental activists are ready to acknowledge and act upon. The patch has formed from countless tonnes of rubbish deposited into the sea, 80% of it from mainland areas.

The Garbage patch’s location in the North Pacific is due to gyre, an ocean current that is very calm at its centre but swirls round in a circle, drawing in ever-increasing volumes of floating debris. Ecologists have been forecasting the existence of such features since at least the 1980s, but it was only in 1997 that Charles Moore and his crew confirmed the existence of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch while competing in a yachting race. Moore subsequently set up a campaigning body to bring attention to the problem.

Plastic does not degrade like natural materials such as paper or cotton: instead, it breaks down into smaller and smaller harmful compounds over hundreds of years. Tiny bits of plastic found floating in the oceans are sometimes referred to as ‘mermaid’s tears ‘- surely a far more romantic name than they deserve. While many birds and mammals are killed when they become trapped in plastic debris, than the plastics introduce into the food systems, which the progress perniciously from the smallest plankton to the largest whale.

Scientists estimate that the Garbage patch contains three-quarters of million fragments of plastic per square kilometer. Plastics account for 90% of all the rubbish in the world’s oceans, and as much as 70% of it sinks, causing untold damage to life on the sea bed. Yet the great Pacific Garbage Patch remains the floating landfill site that no government seems keen to discuss. It is a safe guess that if it were the Great Pacific Oil Reserve, there would be rather more of a clamor to establish sovereignty.


K2 | Routes & Deaths on K2 | Theinfromationworld

K2 is located in Karakoram mountain range in Baltistan Pakistan. It is the second-highest peak in the world, with a peak rising 8611m (28251ft) above sea level. For most climbers, a climb to K2 is more difficult for them than the gigantic Mount Everest. It is accessible from both China and Pakistan. In Pakistan, it can be accessed via Askoli Shigar valley while in China it can be accessed via Shaksgam valley.

Naming of K2
K2 was named as such for the first time by a British surveyor named T.G Montgomerie  in 1852 during his first survey of Karakoram Great Trigonometric Survey of India. They named the two most prominent peaks as K1 and K2 while surveying from Mount Harmukh some 200km towards the south. But the local Balti people started to call K1 as Masherbrum and K2 as Chhoghori. A few years later the name Masherbrum was used officially but the name K2 remained the same, The ‘K’ was in the reference to the Karakoram mountain range and the ‘2’ referring to the fact that it was the second-highest peak recorded in the world.

Climbing routes
Mountaineers use the routes which are pre-determined by the classic mountaineers like Prince Luigi Amedeo. There are many routes up to the top, the names of those routes are West ridge(A), West face(b), Southwest pillar(C), South face(D), South-southeast spur(E), Abruzzi spur(F).

The Abruzzi Spur Route
The standard route out of all the routes is the Abruzzi spur route, this route is located on the Pakistan side. Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi first attempted this route in 1909. So in the recognition of his work this route is named the Abruzzi spur route. 75% of all the climbers use this route to reach the summit. This is the Southeast Ridge of the peak, rising above the Godwin-Austen Glacier. The spur properly begins at an altitude of 5,400m.

The North Ridge Route
The North Ridge is the most dangerous and difficult route to the summit of K2. Due to extreme difficult access, including crossing the Shaksgam River, this route is rarely climbed. It is present almost at the opposite side of the Abruzzi spur route. This route is accessed via the Chinese side of the mountain.

The Northeast Ridge Route
This is the long route that finishes on the uppermost part of the Abruzzi route. This ridge was first crossed by a Polish expedition led by Janusz Kurczab in 1976, but the team was unable to reach the top due to poor weather conditions.

The West Ridge Route
The West Ridge route begins on the Negrotto Glacier, it was first climbed in 1981 by a Japanese team. The technical aspects of this climb include traversing and unpredictable bands of rocks and snowfields.

The Southwest Pillar (Magic Line) Route
The Southwest Pillar route is considered to be the second most demanding, it is also a technically challenging route to start with. It was first climbed by a Polish-Slovak expedition. Another known successful attempt to climb this route was accomplished by Jordi Corominas from Spain in 2004.

The South Face (Polish line, Central Rib) Route
The South Face route is the most dangerous, exposed and demanding of all. Jerzy Kukuczka and Tadeusz Piotrowski were the first to climb on this route in 1986, Piotrowski was killed during descending. The entrance to this route is via the Pakistan side. It starts off the first part of the Southwest Pillar and then gradually deviates into a highly exposed, snowy cliff area. This route further proceeds through a gully known as “The Hockey Stick”, and goes through another exposed cliff-face, and the route goes continuously through another highly exposed all the way up to the point at which the route joins with the Abruzzi spur route about 300m before the summit. This route is so avalanche-prone, that’s why after Jerzy Kukuczka and Tadeusz Piotrowski no one has ever tried to climb on this route.

The Northwest Face Route
This route is popular for its chaotic rock and snowfields all the way up to the top. Access to this route is via the Chinese side. The route was first ascended by a Japanese team in 1990 from the Chinese side of the mountain.

The Northwest Ridge Route
The first attempt to climb the Northwest Ridge Route was accomplished in 1991 and it finishes on the North Ridge.

The South-southeast Spur (Cesen Route, Basque Route)
The South-southeast Spur is considered to be the safest way to summit because it avoids the Black Pyramid, it passes above the Black Pyramid and below Bottleneck. Tomo ńĆesen was the first person who ascended to 8,000m via this route in 1986. The first successful summit via this route was accomplished by the Basque team in 1994.

The West Face
The West Face Route is a technically challenging at higher altitude. It was first ascended by a Russian team in 2007, this route almost completely comprises of rock crevasses and snow-capped couloirs.

Achille Compagnoni on K2's summit

Deaths on K2
K2 the second-highest mountain in the world, only 237m shorter than Mount Everest, has a high death rate, more than the other mountains. For every 100 climbers that attempted a summit on K2, 29 have died. For Everest this ratio is low. For every 100 mountaineers to attempt a summit on Everest, 4 will die. It is clear that K2 is more dangerous and difficult to climb than Everest. Only 306 climbers have completed the task of getting to the top of K2, but 80+ have been dismissed. Compared to Everest, 5,600 people have obtained their dreams of summiting Everest but only 300 have died while summiting Everest.


Coca-Cola's Secret Formula Vault

Coca-Cola might well be the world’s favorite drink, with a reported 1.7 billion servings sold every day. Such is the mythology that has grown up around the Coca-Cola brand that its recipe is perhaps the most famous trade secret in history. Jealously guarded since first being committed to paper in the early part of the 20th century, it now resides in an extraordinary vault that doubles as a tourist attraction.

The Coca-Cola story begins in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1886 with a chemist called John Pemberton, Creator of delights such as French Wine Coca and Pemberton’s Indian Queen magic Hair Dye. Facing the spectre of prohibition, he set upon devising a non-alcoholic version of his wine coca. The result was a brownish syrup that he intended to market as a sort of ‘cure-all’. Quite serendipitously, however, a batch of this syrup was mixed with carbonated water, creating the drink that is known and loved today.

But for all his talents as a potion-maker, Pemberton was deeply flawed as a businessman. In 18891, he sold his business to Asa Griggs Candler for what turned out to be a regrettably low $2,300. Candler was quick to realize that the value of his purchase lay in Coca-Cola’s distinctive taste, and he forbade its recipe to be written down lest anyone copy it. In 1919, Ernest Woodruff led a team of investors who bought the company from the Candler clan. The purchase required a loan, which woodruff secured by offering the Coca-Cola formula as collateral. After finally persuading Candler to write it down for him, Woodruff deposited the recipe in the vault of the Guaranty Bank of New York. It remained there until 1925 when the loan was paid off and was then moved to the Trust Company Bank in Atlanta Georgia, where it stayed until 2011.

Despite countless imitators on the market, Coca-Cola has made a policy of rarely filling trademark lawsuits against them, since doing so might force them to reveal the formula in court. That said, the basic recipe is believed to include a mixture of caffeine, caramel, coca, citric acid, lime juice, sugar, water and vanilla.

The part of the recipe that remains elusive is ‘Merchandise 7X’, the ingredient responsible for the drink’s unique special flavor despite accounting for just 1 percent of its volume. Over the years, many have claimed to have uncovered the secret. For instance, in 2011, US radio show This American Life announced the rediscovery of a story published in the Atlanta Journal-Constitution in 1979. Alongside the article was a photo of the recipe from an old notebook that, it was claimed, belonged to a friend of John Pemberton. Nonetheless, Coca-Cola remains adamant that no one has yet come up with the correct formula.

Company legend has it hath only a tiny band of people know the recipe, and they are not allowed to travel together for fear of an accident in which the formula might be lost forever. In December 2011, the recipe was retrieved from its vault at SunTrust Bank and, under high security, was transferred a few minutes down the road to a new purpose-built vault at the company’s World of Coca-Cola exhibition. The decision to move the formula was apparently unrelated to SunTrust’s decision to sell off its Coca-Cola stock holdings in 2007.

In front of the watching media, a metal box believed to contain the recipe was placed into a newly constructed 2-meter high steel vault. This vault is never opened and is protected by a barrier that keeps the viewing public several meters away. The area is kept under surveillance, with guards on hand to deal with any troublemakers. By the door stands a keypad and a hand-imprint scanner, although officials have refused to confirm if there are simply for show


The Pentagon

The pentagon is the iconic headquarters of the US Department of Defense and, in terms of area, the world’s largest office building. The Pentagon is one of the world’s most heavily protected buildings.

In the early days of the Second World War, it became clear that the rapidly expanding US Department of War needed new headquarters to consolidate its operations. The Department’s chief engineer at the time, Brigadier Brehon B. Somervell came up with the basic designs for what would become the pentagon after what he described as a very busy weekend in July 1941. Several locations were earmarked as potential sites before President Roosevelt decided on the plot of the recently closed Washington-Hoover Airport.

The breaking of ground for the new headquarters occurred on 11 September 1941. Several concessions to wartime circumstances were made in the construction process. Principally, the architects employ limited use of steel which was then In short supply. This meant, for instance, that ramps were built between roofs rather than lifts being installed. The Pentagon’s basic fabric is reinforced concrete, with Indiana limestone used on the facade. The site was conveniently located on what was essentially waste ground and swampland by the Potomac River, which was dredged for sand and gravel to be used in cement making.

The building rises 23 meters (75 ft) into the air and each side is 281 meters (922 ft) in length, covering an area of 14 hectares (34 acres) including the central courtyard and providing workspace for 24,000 employees. It consists of five concentric pentagons of five floors each, joined by ten interconnecting ‘spoke’ corridors. There are more than 28 Km of corridors, yet the clever design means that no two points are more than seven minutes’ walk apart. The original construction phase took only 16 months and was completed at a cost of US$83 million. When it was officially opened on 15 January 1943, the pentagon consolidated some 17 departments of War offices.

In 11998, the Pentagon Renovation program began - the first major overhaul in the building’s history. Work was carried out in phases over 13 years, and among its provisions were the installation of improved security systems and steel reinforcements to strengthen the building’s concrete structure. Blast resistant windows were also fitted.

2001 attach served only to further focus concentration on security. In early 2002, the Defense Department established the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA), a direct successor to the federal protective service and the United States special Policemen. While focusing on law enforcement, the PFPA’s remit has extended to include security. The first line of defense for the Pentagon and its environs is the PFPA’s Pentagon police.

Other security measures added in recent years include the removal of all direct access into the Pentagon from the Metrorail station that serves it, and the filtering of road traffic away from the building. Members of the public are permitted to tour the Pentagon but must book a time in advance, undergo a security screening, provide identification and pass through metal detectors.


Snake Island

Lying just off the coast of Brazil, the island of Ilha da Queimada Grand is populated by a unique and highly venomous species of lancehead viper. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this small island has become known as snake island – an ophidiophobic,s vision of hell, only doughty scientist and crazed adventures dare set foot on its ground.

Snake Island is home to a vast colony of golden lancehead pit viper among the most poisonous snake on the planet. The golden lancehead is only to be found this one particular island, so it is understandably rather protective of its territory. Its venom is about five times as potent as that of its cousin, the fer-de –lance, which is itself responsible for more South American snakebite death than other species.

Gust getting to the island, which covers about 45 hectares, takes considerable determination. It is first necessary to cross a 30-kilometers stretch of choppy water from the coast of the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo, and there are few local sea captains willing to make the trip. Once at the island, there is no beach to speak of, and access is via a steep, rocky slope covered in hand-mincing barnacles. All of which is somewhat academic, given that the Brazilian Navy expressly forbids civilian from landing there anyway. Only accredited scientists are occasionally given special dispensation to visit.

There are at least 5,000 snakes writhing around the place, with conservative estimates suggesting one for every square meter: they have been taken over a now-defunct lighthouse. Being lighthouse keeper lived there with his family until snakes got into their cottage. As they tried to flee, they were taken out one by one by vipers dangling from the branches of overhanging trees.

Location: Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.


The Forbidden Tomb of Genghis Khan

Given the name Temujin at birth, Genghis khan went on to unite disparate nomadic tribes to establish the Mongol Empire, winning himself a reputation as one of history’s most feared warriors in the process. In accordance with his wishes, he was buried in the utmost secrecy: the  location of his tomb remains one of history’s enduring conundrums, despite numerous attempts for finding it.

Temujin was in his mid-40s by the time he became the leader of the Mongols in the early 13th century. During his reign, he laid the foundations for a vast empire that would eventually stretch from china to Hungary, taking a title, Genghis Khan, that struck fear into hearts of both subjects and rivals. But he was more than a bloodthirsty tyrant, introducing a written language system.

He died in 1227, aged around 65. The exact cause of his death is disputed, with explanation ranging from riding accident to illness. Regardless, it was his wish to be buried in secret in accordance with tribal custom, his testing place to remain unmarked. To this end, extraordinary and infamous precautions were undertaken. Legend has it that members of his funeral escort slaughtered any person unfortunate enough to stray across their path. The slaves who built the tomb were murdered once it was completed so that they could not divulge its location, and the soldiers who killed them were in turn dispatched. It is said that the ground was then trampled by horses, planted with trees and even had a river diverted over it to hide the tomb entrance.

Debate ranges as to the location of the emperor’s body. Many believe that it is probably in Mongolia’s Khentii Province, perhaps close to the sacred Burkhan Kaldun mountain where Temujin was born. In 2004, an archaeological team claimed to have found his long-last palace in this region, which many experts assume would have been close to his final resting place.

Yet the grave remains elusive and that is no doubt what Gengish khan would want.


Tower of London Jewel House

The English Crown Jewels are estimated to be worth somewhere close to £13 billion, putting them high on the list of targets for master criminals. They have been kept under heavy guard at the Tower of London for centuries, and in 1994 were moved to a new home within the castle boundaries, a state of the are jewel house designed to keep them protected while being viewed by thousands of tourists each day.

From the King’s crown, adorned with over 3,000 jewels, to the royal Sceptre that includes the Cullinan diamond, the crown jewels are an unrivalled collection. They have been stored at the Tower of London since 1303, having previously resided at Westminster Abbey until they were subject to an attempted theft.

The nearest anyone has come to successfully snatching them from the tower was a notorious 1672 heist led by colonel Blood. At that time the jewels were held in the Martin Tower, protected by a custodian, Talbot Edwards, who would allow visitors to inspect them for a small consideration. Blood and a female accomplice duly befriended Edwards and his wife over a period of weeks.

By early May 1671, Blood had persuaded the master of jewel House to let him see the collection with a small troop of friends. He then led an ambush, the gang beating Edwards and seizing whatever valuables they could. Although they were apprehended before they could getaway. Blood somehow secured himself a royal pardon – some say as the reward for his astonishing bravado.

The chances of such a ruse proving successful today are more remote than ever. The jewels were moved to the Tower’s neo-Gothic Waterloo barracks in 1967, but by the early 1990s, it was clear that the basement room in which they were kept was unable to cope with the crowds of tourists. A new jewel house was built within the barracks, with capacity for 2,500 people each hour.

Opened in 1994, the building includes a raft of safety and security measures that cost more than £3 million. Today the jewels lie on cushions of French velvet protected by 5-cm thick reinforced glass. They are kept under 24-hour surveillance from a nearby control room while Yeoman Warders and members of the Tower Guard stand ready to step in should the need arise. So you are welcome to look but don’t even think about touching.

Location: Tower Hill, London, England.

Karachi: The largest City of Pakistan

Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan, located in southeastern part of the country. The city is an important industrial center and port on the coast of Arabian Sea. It covers about 3,527 km² area. The two rivers namely River Malir and River Lyari flow through the city. The Karachi harbour is situated on the south-west part of the city. The city has a vast coastline running from Cape Monze in the west to Gharo in the east, but the beaches and islands of Karachi provide rare opportunities for recreation and tourism.

The geographical co-ordinates of the city are: 24°51′36″N and 67°00′36″E.
As the city is located on the coast of Arabian Sea; it tends to have a moderate climate due to marine affects. The average rainfall of the city is around 7 inches per annum. However, the city experiences bulk precipitation during the monsoon season in July-August. Summers are scorching in the city, with May and June being the hottest months of the year, when temperatures often reach the 45°C mark. Winters are mild and January is the coldest month. Winter is the best time to visit the city

Historical Background:

Karachi was actually a small fisherman village settled by the Baloch tribes from Balochistan and Makran. Their first settlement was near the delta of the Indus River which they named as 'Kolachi’ village. The people of the original community yet inhabit the area on small island of Abdullah Goth situated near Karachi Port. The well-known neighbourhood ‘Mai Kolachi’ of Karachi still reminds the original name of the city.

At the end of 1700 century, the settlers of Kolachi village started trading across the sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf region. Later, the village started to grow as the commercial hub and a port for trade. For the protection of this developing area, a small fort was constructed. This fort was handed over to the rulers of Sindh by the Khan of Kalat in 1795.

When the British recognized the importance of the city as the trade post. So they captured the city and Sindh province in February 1843 under the command of Sir Charles Napier and the city was annexed as a district of the British Indian Empire. In 1846, it was home to around 9000 citizens. On 10 September, 1857, the 21st Native Infantry stationed in Karachi revolted against the British in its First Indian War for Independence, but the plan was busted by the British who regained the control over the city very quickly.

In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent by a direct telegraph connection between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected by a railway line to the rest of India and consequently public building projects like Frere Hall (1865) and the Empress Market (1890) were started in the city. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in this city.

The Bombay District Municipal Act 1837 was extended to Sindh in 1878 and the urban area of Karachi was included in the city. The Municipality started to collect House Tax on Property owners, being first municipality to collect the tax in the sub-continent. By the end of 19th century, the city was home to around 105,000 people.

Karachi City Municipal Act was propagated in 1933 and the Municipality of Karachi was given the status of Municipal Corporation. At the same time, the status of President and Vice President were replaced by Mayor and Dy. Mayor respectively. It consisted by 57 Councilors residing in Karachi. In 1933, Mr. Jamshed Naserwanji was elected as the first Mayor of the city who had earlier served as elected President for about 20 years. The city was declared as the capital of the newly formed Sindh province in 1936.

When Pakistan was declared as a separate country in 1947, Karachi was chosen as the Capital of Pakistan. During this period, the city offered shelter to a huge influx of migrants and refugees that came from the Indian province. In 1960, the capital of Pakistan was first moved to Rawalpindi and then to Islamabad. Still Karachi never lost its importance as the economic center of Pakistan.

Places to Visit in Karachi:

1- Quaid-E-Azam's Mausoleum:
Quaid-E-Azam's Mausoleum is a monumental tomb (Mazar-e-Quaid) of Pakistan's founder, Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Situated near the city of Karachi, the tomb was built in the 1960's. The mausoleum also contains the graves of Fatima Jinnah (sister of Quaid-e-Azam), Mader-e-Millat (Mother of the nation), and Liaqat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan. The mausoleum was completed in 1970, and it is also the iconic symbol of Karachi.

2- National Museum of Pakistan:
It was established in 1950, the National Museum of Pakistan collects preserves and studies various artefacts associated with Pakistani cultural heritage. The museum was relocated to its present address at Burnes Garden in 1970 with four galleries. Today there are eleven galleries including the Quran gallery which exhibits 300 identical copies of Quran. Other galleries showcase, collections sourced from the Indus & Gandhar civilization, Islamic Art and Pakistan's political history

3- Clifton Beach:
The popular Clifton Beach in Karachi with its golden sands, amusement park and a plethora of food stalls attracts tourists very much. Situated in Saddar Town, the beach is encircled by numerous handicraft shops selling local crafts and sea shell items. Many tourists and locals come here in the evenings to stroll down the sparkling sands or enjoy a small, cozy picnic with their loved ones. Nearby the beach is Funland amusement park with a bowling alley & aquarium, Shrine of Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ghazi and a vantage point to view the Oyster Island.


Hunza Valley: A Spectrum of beauty.

Pakistan is one of the few countries with such a dynamic landscape.

The much renowned Hunza valley is often referred to as heaven on earth, situated in the grand Himalayas and the Karakoram mountain ranges, this place has been a great tourist attraction for many years.

For me, it all happened when I was 16 years old and left the home with father and brother, after completing a long journey of about 12-14 hours we reached Gilgit. The next day, as we proceeded according to our mission. Before that, I had only heard about Hunza valley’s beauty, so I could only paint pictures in my mind of what was coming next.
It was the mid-July, the sun was covered by the clouds and when we reached Nilt from Gilgit, I was truly mesmerized by its beauty.
The meadows, plants laden with white, pink, and orange flowers could be found all over the place. I was simply blown away by the truly mesmerizing colours.
There were so many flowers alongside the road from Hussainabad to Aliabad. Although it was not the spring season but nature was still in its bloom.
Historical Background:
Hunza is located at a distance of 100 kilometers from Gilgit. In the early 1890s, the British embarked upon a mission to annex Hunza and Nagar, which is also known as the Hunza-Nagar Campaign.
British soldiers led by Colonel Durand occupied Nilt Fort in 1890. After that, they proceeded to the Baltit Fort, but faced heavy resistance.
The British gained complete control of Hunza and Nagar with little effort. Thereafter, the Mir of Hunza, Safdar Ali Khan along with his family, fled to Kashgar in China, and his brother Mir Muhammad Nazim Khan was made the new ruler of Hunza by the British.

Hunza enchanted me so much that my heart suggested me to stay here at least for a month, but because of the school, we couldn’t stay long.
After crossing a long bridge we headed towards the Attabad Lake, the most common and accessible lake in Hunza(Gojal), as we were moving towards the lake we had to pass through several Tunnels, the combined distance of all the tunnels is round about 11km. By passing through all the tunnels, we finally saw the giant lake which was about 20.9km long. We enjoyed our lunch very much beside the lake.

Attabad Lake.
You can live a pretty comfortable life while being in your home in a large city, but as soon as you travel to the northern areas of Pakistan, you find that the real peace of mind lies within these beautiful outlooks.
A lot of foreigners come to seeing Hunza. With that, the tourism factor has increased much more than before. From winters to spring,  nature seems to be in a transition period, but this place remains remarkable with every changing season.
Whenever I am reminded of my Hunza expeditions, I have the urge to retreat to those places once again.

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